Canadian Civil Service
The Public Service of Canada is the staff, or bureaucracy, of the federal government of Canada. Its function is to support the Canadian monarch, and to handle the hiring of employees for the federal government ministries. It is represented by the Governor General, and the appointed ministry.
The public service functions through departments, agencies, commissions, crown corporations, and other federal organizations. Over 40% of the Public Service of Canada is located in the Ottawa-Hull area, although there are staff in over 1,600 locations across Canada. It is also the nation's largest single employer. The purpose of the Canadian public service is to enact the will of the government. It does this through providing advice, implementing the priorities of the government, supporting Ministers of the Crown, and delivering services that support Canadians.
In 1957, the CSC establishes the Pay Research Bureau to provide objective information on rates of pay and conditions of employment in government and industry, and to recommend salary rates for civil servants. The new Civil Service Act of 1961 gave civil servants the right of appeal against not only promotions, but also transfers, demotions, suspensions and dismissals.
Organizational Structure :The chief public servant is the Clerk of the Queen's Privy Council. In 2007, there were approximately 200 departments, agencies, commissions, boards, councils and crown corporations. A typical department is headed by a minister, which is a political position held usually by a member of parliament, and who is a member of the Cabinet. The senior civil servant in a department is usually titled as Deputy Minister. These officials are responsible for all on-going operations within their department, while ministers are accountable to parliament. Deputy heads report to the Clerk of the Privy Council.
Under the Deputy Minister there will usually be three to five Assistant Deputy Ministers who oversee various broad aspects of the department (policy, administration, program implementation etc). Within the jurisdiction of each Assistant Deputy Minister is usually two to five Directors-General who oversee more functional areas of each broad element of the department. Under Directors-General are Directors, who oversee various directorates, which are the core of any department. These directorates contain the ground level in each department and are the members of the public service who implement government decisions.
Hiring (or selection) of civil servants is typically done through a competitive process that is either external (open) process or an internal (closed) process. External competitions are typically done to recruit a greater number of applicants. Conversely, internal competitions may be held for positions where there is considered to be adequate internal candidates and/or to provide opportunities for advancement within the civil service. Since the 2003 enactment of the 2003 Public Service Modernization Act, competitions now focus less on a rules-based concept of best-qualified, and more on a values-based approach that supposedly allows managers to hire qualified and competent individuals more quickly.
Civil servants in Canada are not contracted by an abstraction called "the state," but rather are employed by the Canadian monarch, who personifies the state and "enjoys a general capacity to contract in accordance with the rule of ordinary law." Many Canadian civil servants are members of the Public Service Alliance of Canada. They negotiate a collective bargaining agreement for all workers except deputy ministers.